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Summer 2013 Forage & Livestock

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SPECIAL SECTION: 2013 FORAGE GUIDE Weed Life Cycles Annuals A plant that lives one year or less and reproduces by seeds. Generally annual weeds will be either considered winter annuals or summer annuals. Winter annuals germinate in the fall, over winter, then flower, set seed and die the following spring. Controlling winter annuals should be done in fall prior to the plants over wintering or early in the spring before the plants start to flower. Summer annuals germinate in the spring and complete growth by the fall. Controlling summer annuals should be done in the spring or early summer when the weeds are germinating and are small. Always try to spray before flowering. Biennials A plant that lives no more than two years and reproduces by seed. Controlling biennial type of weeds should be done when the plants are germinating or while they are still in a rosette form prior to rapid stem elongation and flowering. Perennials A perennial type of plant that may live for several years reproducing from seed and or vegetatively through roots and rhizomes. Adequately controlling perennial type of weeds is often difficult. The best time to try to control is when bud stage is initiated and plants start building root reserves. Spraying herbicides that can translocate to the root reserves will lead to the best control approach. Seedling plants that are in their first year of growth can be sprayed prior to bud stage. Removal of Plant Nutrients by Forages (lbs. per ton of dry hay) CROP NITROGEN P2O5 K2O CALCIUM MAGNESIUM SULFUR Alfalfa* 60.0 15.0 60.0 28.0 5.0 5.0 Red Clover* 56.0 12.5 45.0 24.0 6.0 5.0 Sorghum-Sudan 40.0 15.0 55.0 10.0 6.0 4.5 Cool Season Grass 45.0 12.0 50.0 10.0 4.5 4.5 Warm Season Grass 35.0 10.0 35.0 10.0 5.0 3.5 Grass Pasture (TON) 40.0 3.0 12.0 3.0 1.5 1.5 *Most of the nitrogen is obtained from the atmosphere. 24 WEED LIFE CYCLES Summer 2013

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